Please research and write an original Research Paper related to the Black Power Movement on “The Language of the Unheard”: Inner City Rebellions of the 1960s. PAPER CONTENTS: 1) Title Page: Paper Title, Your Name, Course Name, Date and the Professor’s Name 2) Table of Contents: Subheadings that appear in the text; page numbers for these headings 3) Introduction 4) Body: Divided into Sections and Subsections (if necessary) 5) Conclusion 6) Bibliography 7) Table of Figures (if necessary)
example of how the RESEARCH PROPOSAL/ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY should look like.
Teisha Dupree-Wilson December 16, 2016 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF STUDY In 1951, WDAS station manager Robert Klein decided to change the station’s target audience and developed programming geared toward Philadelphia’s black population. At the conclusion of World War II, a large number of African Americans migrated to Philadelphia from the South. By 1951, the city’s black population had risen to over 18%. Although Philadelphia was home to a sizeable black population, none of the radio stations in the city played music by black artists. Klein was a huge fan of black music and wanted to appeal to African-American listeners who were being ignored by other stations. Klein’s programmatic change included airtime that exclusively showcased music by black artists and also offered news stories that brought awareness to issues of injustice that plagued Philadelphia’s black community. After serving in World War II, in a segregated military, Klein developed an interest in civil rights. This awareness, along with the discrimination that he witnessed against African Americans after he returned home from the war, influenced Klein’s decision to incorporate a civil rights aim into the station’s new mission. For decades WDAS served as the premier vessel for the voice of Philadelphia’s black population. As a result, the station was recognized among the vanguard of local and national civil rights organizations for its influence, financial contributions to the civil rights movement, relationships with major civil rights figures and the physical presence of its disc jockeys in Philadelphia’s black community. The civil rights initiatives of WDAS addressed a broad range of concerns, including voter disenfranchisement, racially charged police brutality, employment discrimination, racial segregation of public facilities and other community ills. WDAS not only thrived as a chief source of musical entertainment among black Philadelphians but also emerged as a community megaphone for the voiceless. Even though WDAS took an active leadership role in black Philadelphia’s attack on racial injustice, its impact on local and national civil rights is largely underestimated in the historical conversation regarding the influence of black media on the movement. In comparison with the black press, the role of black radio stations has not received the same amount of historiographical attention. This study will help to illuminate the social and political impact of black radio by examining WDAS. WORKING THESIS STATEMENT WDAS AM-FM emerged as a platform designed to empower Philadelphia’s African-American community in their struggle for equality and led campaigns against police brutality, voter suppression, segregation and other forms of racial injustice that were comparable to other civil rights organizations during the apex of the Civil Rights Movement. THEORETICAL/PARADIGMATIC APPROACH This study will use empirical and analytical paradigms to evaluate how the civil right initiatives of WDAS mirrored the activities of other civil rights organizations during the years of 1951 through 1979. Through empirical evidence, this study will reveal the impact that WDAS had on the racial conditions for Philadelphia’s African-American community. This theoretical framework, which also employs a subaltern approach, will expose how other civil rights leaders and groups viewed WDAS in addition to how the station was admired by the citizens of Philadelphia’s black community. PAPER OUTLINE Introduction ▪ Background/Description of Topic ▪ Literature Review ▪ Methodology ▪ Chapter Summaries Developing a Black Format ▪ Philadelphia’s Radio Climate in 1951 ▪ Max Leon and Robert A. Klein ▪ Developing a Civil Rights Agenda/Creating A Platform for Black Grievances Vinyl and Valor: Meet the Soul Music Disc Jockeys of WDAS ▪ WDAS’s disc jockeys from 1951-1979 ▪ Georgie Woods ▪ Louise Williams ▪ Jimmy Bishop ▪ Douglas “Jocko” Henderson, Kae ▪ Joe “Butterball” Tamburo The News Department and Talk Radio Hosts ▪ WDAS’s news department and talk show hosts from 1951-1979 ▪ Joe Rainey ▪ Jim Klash ▪ Ed Bradley ▪ Art Peters ▪ Bill Adams ▪ Bob Perkins The Columbia Avenue Riots of 1964 ▪ Background ▪ Black Philadelphia’s Response ▪ State of Emergency ▪ The WDAS Response Civil Rights Activism/Community Involvement ▪ Relationship with Civil Rights Leaders/Organizations ▪ FBI Probe, Police Harassment and Threats from Hate Groups ▪ March On Washington ▪ The Desegregation of Girard College ▪ WDAS Community Programs/Initiatives and Political Involvement Conclusion ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Secondary Sources Books Barlow, William. Voice Over: The Making of Black Radio. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999. This book examines the significant role of black radio in promoting black entertainment and impacting race relations. Barlow addresses how black disc jockeys exposed interracial audiences to black music and emphasizes that although stations were identified as black, virtually none of these stations were black-owned or managed. Berson, Lenora E. Case Study of a Riot: the Philadelphia Story. New York, NY: Institute of Human Relations Press, American Jewish Committee, 1966. This book discusses the race riot that occurred in Philadelphia in August of 1964. It explains how the riot began, the response of black community leaders and the racial tension that was building in Philadelphia prior to the riot. It also discusses the aftermath of the riot. Black, Helen, John Groce and Charles Harmon. From Zero to Eighty: Two African American Men’s Narrative of Racism, Suffering, Survival, and Transformation. Bloomington: !Universe, Inc., 2011. This work provides biographical information on two men. One of these men, Charles Harmon, worked as a talk radio host at WDAS in the 1970s. Harmon’s experiences on WDAS are revealed in addition to his personal life challenges. Boris, Alan. Philadelphia Radio (Images of America). Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2011. This work provides background on the history of Philadelphia radio from 1922 to present. It details how the radio landscape changed dramatically during the 1950s and 1960s and provides details on how black radio emerged through WDAS. Countryman, Matthew J. Up South: Civil Rights and Black Power in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. This book discusses black Philadelphians’ push for racial justice between World War II and the 1970s. It also highlights the activism of Philadelphia’s Black Power activists on issues related to police brutality and employment discrimination. Delmont, Matthew F. The Nicest Kids in Town: American Bandstand, Rock ‘n’ Roll, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in 1950s Philadelphia. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2012. In this work, Delmont discusses racial issues relating to American Bandstand, a Philadelphia-based television show, in the late 1950s. It also examines how Philadelphia had become a battleground for civil rights and city’s racial climate. The show’s relationship to Philadelphia radio stations is discussed in addition to the work of many of WDAS’ disc jockeys. Dobkin, Matt. I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You: Aretha Franklin, Respect, and the Making of a Soul Music Masterpiece. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004. This book examines the life and career of R&B/Gospel singer Aretha Franklin. The book reveals how WDAS disc jockey Louise Williams helped Franklin to transition from gospel to R&B music and how this helped to catapult her career. Euchner, Charles. Nobody Turn Me Around: A People’s History of the 1963 March on Washington. Boston: Beacon Press, 2011. This book explores the tension surrounding the March on Washington in 1963. It also discusses how, in Philadelphia, WDAS served as a platform for black expressing black grievances against racial discrimination. George, Marsha Washington. Black Radio … Winner Takes All: America’s 1st Black DJs. Bloomington: Xlibris Publishing, 2002. George highlights the impact of black radio and how it emerged after World War II. It discusses the effect that black radio djs had on black communities and culture. It also details the racial struggles that many of these djs experienced in their careers. Hayes, Bernie. The Death of Black Radio: The Story of America’s Black Radio Personalities. Lincoln, NE: !Universe Publishers, 2005. This work provides information on the black radio industry. Hayes focuses on the racial discrimination facing many of the black radio personalities and how they used mass media platforms to mobilize communities in an effort to combat racial injustice. Jackson, John A. A House on Fire: The Rise and Fall of Philadelphia Soul. New York, Oxford University Press, 2004. Jackson examines how Philadelphia “soul music” emerged and became an industry phenomenon. He discusses the work of Kenny Gamble, Leon Huff and Thom Bell and how WDAS was instrumental in helping to shape “The Sound of Philadelphia.” It also reveals how racism in the music industry forced Gamble and Huff to create their own musical empire in Philadelphia International Records. Newman, Mark. Entrepreneurs of Profit and Pride: From Black-appeal to Radio Soul. Santa Barbara: Praeger, 1988. Newman traces the development of black radio programming, which began when the concept of the black appeal format first occurred to certain entrepreneurs. The book demonstrates how this concept played a pivotal role in the rise of cultural pride. Through the case studies of three representative black radio stations, Newman reveals how the evolution of programming practices was dictated not only by pride but also by profits gained. Roberts, Kimberly C. Joy Ride! The Stars and Stories of Philly’s Famous Uptown Theater. Bloomington: Xlibris Publishing, 2013. This book discusses Philadelphia’s famous Uptown Theater. It provides details on the career and activism of WDAS dj and civil rights activist Georgie Woods. Roberts highlights the impact that the Uptown Theater and the shows hosted by Woods had on black Philadelphia. Spady, James G. Georgie Woods: I’m Only a Man!: The Life Story of a Mass Communicator, Promoter, Civil Rights Activist. Philadelphia: Snack-Pac Book Division, 1992. Spady discusses the career and civil rights activism of WDAS disc jockey Georgie Woods. It focuses on how Woods headed initiatives designed to combat racism related to police brutality against blacks, voter suppression and the desegregation of Girard College. Williams, Gilbert A. Legendary Pioneers of Black Radio. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1998. Williams discusses how African American disc jockeys were instrumental in helping blacks from the rural South transition to urban life in northern cities, after World War II. This book illustrates how these disc jockeys were cultural icons that helped to push black music into mainstream American culture. A number of the disc jockeys from WDAS are featured in this work. Articles Gordon, Milton M. “The Girard College Case: Desegregation and a Municipal Trust.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 304, Mar. 1956, pp. 53-61. This article examines the fight to desegregate Girard College in Philadelphia. Many of the disc jockeys and broadcast journalists at WDAS were on the frontlines of this battle. Lyons, Courtney Ann. “Burning Columbia Avenue: Black Christianity, Black Nationalism, and ‘Riot Liturgy’ in the 1964 Philadelphia Race Riot.” Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, vol. 77, no. 3, 2010, pp. 324-348. This article deals with the Philadelphia Race Riot in 1964. During this riot, city officials turned to WDAS to use its airwaves to create a racially calm tone throughout the city and to unite the city’s civil rights leaders. Maurantonio, Nicole. “Standing By: Police Paralysis, Race, and the 1964 Philadelphia Riot.” Journalism History, vol. 38, Summer 2012, pp. 110-121. This article discusses the race riot of 1964 and how tension between black Philadelphians and the police had reached a fever’s pitch after years of unpunished police brutality. Russ, Valerie. “When Malcolm Came To Town.” The Philadelphia Daily News, February 21, 2012. This article discusses Malcolm X’s visit to the WDAS studios in 1964. Malcolm X was featured on WDAS journalist Joe Rainey’s talk show “The Listening Post.” Whitaker, Tim. “Recalling the Glory Days of AM Radio in Philadelphia.” Mighty Times, September 2012. Whitaker focuses on the cultural influence of “soul music” radio among African Americans in Philadelphia. He details some of the most recognized radio personalities in the city and how they were embraced by the community for their commitment to playing black artists. Whitaker, Tim. “The Sound and The Fury: The Legacy of Black Radio in Philadelphia.” Jump” The Philly Music Project, September 2, 2011. This piece examines the impact of black radio on the musical landscape of Philadelphia. He discusses the radio stations WDAS and WHAT. Both radio stations designed programming geared toward Philadelphia’s black population. Whitaker, Tim. “The Late, Great WDAS.” Philadelphia Magazine, November 10, 2010. In this article Whitaker talks about the decline of WDAS’s civil rights involvement after 1979 when Robert Klein sold the station. Whitaker discusses the station’s civil rights record prior to the sale and how the djs at the station were regarded as heroes in Philadelphia’s black community. Documentaries Going Black: The Legacy of Philly Soul Radio (An Audio Documentary). By Alex Lewis and Yowei Shaw. Produced by Maggie Leyman, Alex Lewis, Yowei Shaw and Tim Whitaker. Performed by Narrator: Kenny Gamble. USA: Mighty Writers, February 2014. (Accessed: 20 Jun 2016). https://beta.prx.org/stories/108520.This documentary discusses the rise of “soul music” radio stations in Philadelphia. It highlights the influence of WDAS and its radio personalities. It also focuses on how “soul music” djs were revered in Philadelphia’s African-American community. Primary Sources Letters/Correspondence Letter to WDAS from Hon. Andrew Young, Undated. This letter makes reference to the fact that WDAS produced the radio program, Martin Luther King Speaks, for SCLC. Tapes and records of Dr. King’s speeches were brought to Philadelphia and SCLC staff worked for weeks with station personnel, creating the programs for national distribution. WDAS AM-FM was the first station in the country to put it on the air. Telegram to WDAS from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Harry Belafonte, March 27, 1968. Original telegram from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Harry Belafonte requesting WDAS General Manager Bob Klein’s presence at an urgent meeting in New York. Klein told his children it was a small gathering of key allies from all over the country and Dr. King’s plans for the future direction of the Movement were discussed in detail. Newspaper Articles Herman, Martin J. “Rumors Fly, Crowds Mill in North Phila.” Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, August 30, 1964. This article highlights Philadelphia’s race riot in 1964. Printed two days after the riot began, the article gives background on what sparked the riot and the city government’s response. “Malcolm X Guarded After Death Threat.” The Philadelphia Daily News, December 30, 1964. This article discusses Malcolm X’s visit to WDAS and how the radio station and Malcolm received death threats and his planned visit was revealed to the public. The story details the level of security that was provided at and outside of WDAS’s studios. Morrison, John F. “’Very gratifying,’ Girard Lawyer Says of Court Ruling.” Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, March 1, 1967. This article talks about the desegregation of Girard College, a boarding school for orphans with a whites only policy. WDAS disc jockey Georgie Woods, along with Cecil B. Moore, Esq. of the NAACP were instrumental in tearing down this discriminatory policy. Miscellaneous “A Resolution.” Congressional Record of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, June 28, 2007. This document recognizes WDAS for its years of serve in the arena of civil rights. It also recognizes the new department’s coverage of the March on Washington, the Little Rock Nine and other major civil rights milestones. “Contribution of Robert Klein to Black Progress and Racial Harmony.” Congressional Record of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives Vol. 127 No. 161, November 5, 1981. This document details the civil rights record of WDAS. Some of the achievements mentioned include raising funds for the Freedom Riders, participation in voter registration for African Americans, providing free buses for Philadelphians to the March on Washington and campaigns against police brutality by the Philadelphia police. Pennsylvania House of Representatives Citation, July 20th, 2007. This document Recognizes WDAS for its decades-long commitment to civil rights activism and for providing a platform for black artists. “WDAS-AM: A Pioneering African American Voice in Philadelphia, PA.” Congressional Record of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, October 18, 2007. Detailing WDAS history and national civil rights and broadcast industry contributions.